Publicado en: Nature Communications
Abstract. Background: We hypothesized that implanting cells in a chondral defect at a density more similar to that of the intact cartilage could induce them to synthesize matrix with the features more similar to that of the uninjured one. Methods: We compared the implantation of different doses of chondrocytes: 1 million (n = 5), 5 million (n = 5), or 5 million mesenchymal cells (n = 5) in the femoral condyle of 15 sheep. Tissue generated by microfracture at the trochlea, and normal cartilage from a nearby region, processed as the tissues resulting from the implantation, were used as references. Histological and molecular (expression of type I and II collagens and aggrecan) studies were performed. Results: The features of the cartilage generated by implantation of mesenchymal cells and elicited by microfractures were similar and typical of a poor repair of the articular cartilage (presence of fibrocartilage, high expression of type I collagen and a low mRNA levels of type II
collagen and aggrecan). Nevertheless, in the samples obtained from tissues generated by implantation of chondrocytes, hyaline-like cartilage, cell organization, low expression rates of type I collagen and high levels of mRNA corresponding to type II collagen and aggrecan were observed. These histological features, show less variability and are more similar to those of the normal cartilage used as control in the case of 5 million cells implantation than when 1 million cells were used.
Conclusions: The implantation of autologous chondrocytes in type I/III collagen membranes at high density could be a promising tool to repair articular cartilage.
Guillén-García P, Rodríguez-Iñigo E, Aráuz S, Guillén-Vicente M, Guillén-Vicente I, Caballero-Santos R, Ramos-Martín T, Fernández-Jaén T, Abelow S, López-Alcorocho JM. Nuestra experiencia con la técnica de implante de condrocitos autólogos para el tratamiento de lesiones condrales: resultados de 50 pacientes a 2 años de seguimiento. Revista Española de Artroscopia y Cirugía Articular 2015;22:120-125